Créer une présentation
Télécharger la présentation

Télécharger la présentation
## Section 11.2

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

**In this section you will:**• Solve problems using the law of conservation of energy. • Analyze collisions to find the change in kinetic energy. Section 11.2**Conservation of Energy**Consider a ball near the surface of Earth. The sum of gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy in that system is constant. As the height of the ball changes, energy is converted from kinetic energy to potential energy, but the total amount of energy stays the same. In our everyday world, it may not seem as if energy is conserved. Section 11.2**Conservation of Energy**The money model can again be used to illustrate what is happening in these cases. Suppose you have a total of $50 in cash. One day, you count your money and discover that you are $3 short. Would you assume that the money just disappeared? Section 11.2**Conservation of Energy**You probably would try to remember whether you spent it, and you might even search for it. In other words, rather than giving up on the conservation of money, you would try to think of different places where it might have gone. Section 11.2**Law of Conservation of Energy**Scientists do the same thing as you would if you could not account for a sum of money. Whenever they observe energy leaving a system, they look for new forms into which the energy could have been transferred. This is because the total amount of energy in a system remains constant as long as the system is closed and isolated from external forces. Section 11.2**Law of Conservation of Energy**The law of conservation of energy states that in a closed, isolated system, energy can neither be created nor destroyed; rather, energy is conserved. Under these conditions, energy changes from one form to another while the total energy of the system remains constant. Section 11.2**Law of Conservation of Energy**The sum of the kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy of a system is called mechanical energy. In any given system, if no other forms of energy are present, mechanical energy is represented by the following equation. Mechanical Energy of a System E = KE + PE The mechanical energy of a system is equal to the sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy if no other forms of energy are present. Section 11.2**Conservation of Mechanical Energy**Click image to view the movie. Section 11.2**Roller Coasters**In the case of a roller coaster that is nearly at rest at the top of the first hill, the total mechanical energy in the system is the coaster’s gravitational potential energy at that point. Suppose some other hill along the track is higher than the first one. The roller coaster would not be able to climb the higher hill because the energy required to do so would be greater than the total mechanical energy of the system. Section 11.2**Skiing**Suppose you ski down a steep slope. When you begin from rest at the top of the slope, your total mechanical energy is simply your gravitational potential energy. Once you start skiing downhill, your gravitational potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. Section 11.2**Skiing**As you ski down the slope, your speed increases as more of your potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. In ski jumping, the height of the ramp determines the amount of energy that the jumper has to convert into kinetic energy at the beginning of his or her flight. Section 11.2**Pendulums**The simple oscillation of a pendulum also demonstrates conservation of energy. The system is the pendulum bob and Earth. Usually, the reference level is chosen to be the height of the bob at the lowest point, when it is at rest. If an external force pulls the bob to one side, the force does work that gives the system mechanical energy. Section 11.2**Pendulums**At the instant the bob is released, all the energy is in the form of potential energy, but as the bob swings downward, the energy is converted to kinetic energy. The figure shows a graph of the changing potential and kinetic energies of a pendulum. Section 11.2**Pendulums**When the bob is at the lowest point, its gravitational potential energy is zero, and its kinetic energy is equal to the total mechanical energy in the system. Note that the total mechanical energy of the system is constant if we assume that there is no friction. Section 11.2**Loss of Mechanical Energy**The oscillations of a pendulum eventually come to a stop, a bouncing ball comes to rest, and the heights of roller coaster hills get lower and lower. Where does the mechanical energy in such systems go? Any object moving through the air experiences the forces of air resistance. In a roller coaster, there are frictional forces between the wheels and the tracks. Section 11.2**Loss of Mechanical Energy**When a ball bounces off of a surface, all of the elastic potential energy that is stored in the deformed ball is not converted back into kinetic energy after the bounce. Some of the energy is converted into thermal energy and sound energy. Section 11.2**Loss of Mechanical Energy**As in the cases of the pendulum and the roller coaster, some of the original mechanical energy in the system is converted into another form of energy within members of the system or transmitted to energy outside the system, as in air resistance. The motion of the molecules that make up an object is called thermal energy. Much of the energy used to overcome the force of friction is converted into thermal energy. This can cause a slight increase in the temperature of an object. Section 11.2**Conservation of Mechanical Energy**During a hurricane, a large tree limb, with a mass of 22.0 kg and at a height of 13.3 m above the ground, falls on a roof that is 6.0 m above the ground. A. Ignoring air resistance, find the kinetic energy of the limb when it reaches the roof. B. What is the speed of the limb when it reaches the roof? Section 11.2**Conservation of Mechanical Energy**Step 1: Analyze and Sketch the Problem Section 11.2**Conservation of Mechanical Energy**Sketch the initial and final conditions. Choose a reference level. Section 11.2**Conservation of Mechanical Energy**Draw a bar graph. Section 11.2**Conservation of Mechanical Energy**Identify the known and unknown variables. Known: m = 22.0 kg g= 9.80 m/s2 hlimb = 13.3 m vi= 0.0 m/s hroof = 6.0 m KEi= 0.0 J Unknown: PEi = ? KEf = ? PEf = ? vf = ? Section 11.2**Conservation of Mechanical Energy**Step 2: Solve for the Unknown Section 11.2**Conservation of Mechanical Energy**A. Set the reference level as the height of the roof. Solve for the initial height of the limb relative to the roof. h = hlimb– hroof Section 11.2**Conservation of Mechanical Energy**Substitute hlimb = 13.3 m, hroof = 6.0 m h = 13.3 m – 6.0 m = 7.3 m Section 11.2**Conservation of Mechanical Energy**Solve for the initial potential energy of the limb. PEi = mgh Substitute m = 22.0 kg, g= 9.80 m/s2, h= 7.3 m PEi = (22.0 kg) (9.80 m/s2) (7.3 m) = 1.6×103 J Section 11.2**Conservation of Mechanical Energy**Identify the initial kinetic energy of the limb. The tree limb is initially at rest. KEi = 0.0 J Section 11.2**Conservation of Mechanical Energy**The kinetic energy of the limb when it reaches the roof is equal to its initial potential energy because energy is conserved. KEf = PEi PEf = 0.0 J because h = 0.0 m at the reference level. KEf = 1.6×103 J Section 11.2**Conservation of Mechanical Energy**B.Solve for the speed of the limb. Section 11.2**Conservation of Mechanical Energy**Substitute KEf = 1.6×103 J, m = 22.0 kg Section 11.2**Conservation of Mechanical Energy**Step 3: Evaluate the Answer Section 11.2**Conservation of Mechanical Energy**Are the units correct? Velocity is measured in m/s and energy is measured in kg·m2/s2 = J. Do the signs make sense? KE and the magnitude of velocity are always positive. Section 11.2**Conservation of Mechanical Energy**Step 1: Analyze and Sketch the Problem Sketch the initial and final conditions. Choose a reference level. Draw a bar graph. The steps covered were: Section 11.2**Conservation of Mechanical Energy**Step 2: Solve for the Unknown Set the reference level as the height of the roof. Solve for the initial height of the limb relative to the roof. Solve for the speed of the limb. Step 3: Evaluate the Answer The steps covered were: Section 11.2**Analyzing Collisions**A collision between two objects, whether the objects are automobiles, hockey players, or subatomic particles, is one of the most common situations analyzed in physics. Because the details of a collision can be very complex during the collision itself, the strategy is to find the motion of the objects just before and just after the collision. Section 11.2**Analyzing Collisions**What conservation laws can be used to analyze such a system? If the system is isolated, then momentum and energy are conserved. However, the potential energy or thermal energy in the system may decrease, remain the same, or increase. Therefore, you cannot predict whether kinetic energy is conserved. Section 11.2**Analyzing Collisions**Consider the collision shown in the figure. Section 11.2**Analyzing Collisions**In Case 1, the momentum of the system before and after the collision is represented by the following: pi = pCi+pDi = (1.00 kg)(1.00 m/s)+(1.00 kg)(0.00 m/s) = 1.00 kg·m/s pf = pCf+pDf = (1.00 kg)(–0.20 m/s)+(1.00 kg)(1.20 m/s) = 1.00 kg·m/s Section 11.2**Analyzing Collisions**Thus, in Case 1, the momentum is conserved. Section 11.2**Analyzing Collisions**Is momentum conserved in Case 2 and in Case 3? Section 11.2**Analyzing Collisions**Consider the kinetic energy of the system in each of these cases. Section 11.2**Analyzing Collisions**The kinetic energy of the system before and after the collision in Case 1 is represented by the following equations: Section 11.2**Analyzing Collisions**In Case 1, the kinetic energy of the system increased. If energy in the system is conserved, then one or more of the other forms of energy must have decreased. Perhaps when the two carts collided, a compressed spring was released, adding kinetic energy to the system. This kind of collision is sometimes called a superelastic or explosive collision. Section 11.2**Analyzing Collisions**After the collision in Case 2, the kinetic energy is equal to: Kinetic energy remained the same after the collision. This type of collision, in which the kinetic energy does not change, is called an elastic collision. Section 11.2**Analyzing Collisions**Collisions between hard, elastic objects, such as those made of steel, glass, or hard plastic, often are called nearly elastic collisions. After the collision in Case 3, the kinetic energy is equal to: Section 11.2**Analyzing Collisions**Kinetic energy decreased and some of it was converted to thermal energy. This kind of collision, in which kinetic energy decreases, is called an inelastic collision. Objects made of soft, sticky material, such as clay, act in this way. Section 11.2**Analyzing Collisions**The three kinds of collisions can be represented using bar graphs, such as those shown in the figure. Although the kinetic energy before and after the collisions can be calculated, only the change in other forms of energy can be found. Section 11.2**Analyzing Collisions**In collisions, you can see how momentum and energy are really very different. Momentum is conserved in a collision. Energy is conserved only in elastic collisions. Section 11.2**Analyzing Collisions**It is also possible to have a collision in which nothing collides. If two lab carts sit motionless on a table, connected by a compressed spring, their total momentum is zero. If the spring is released, the carts will be forced to move away from each other. Section 11.2**Analyzing Collisions**The potential energy of the spring will be transformed into the kinetic energy of the carts. The carts will still move away from each other so that their total momentum is zero. Section 11.2